Статьи об американских автобусахDODGE B-Series english

Информация о различных моделях американских автобусов и микроавтобусах
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 DODGE B-Series english

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The first modern Dodge vans were Forward Control A-vans. Wider and higher (but not heavier) than the Chevolet and Ford vans, they could seat 9 passengers or provide 213 cubic feet of cargo space. This generation of Dodge vans, light pickups, medium-duty trucks lasted until 1970; their success led the company to quickly invest in a followup series (as it would turn out, the only followup series). The first series (1964-1970) were named A100, A200, and A300; the second series were named B100, B200, and B300, but are usually referred to as the B-vans. They were made in Fenton, Missouri and Windsor, Ontario until 1980, when falling sales led Chrysler to centralize production in Windsor.

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The B-vans, phased in over 1970 and 1971 (as 1971 models), were radically different from the A-vans, responding to customer requests. Wind resistance was cut, lowering noise and increasing highway mileage; the windshield was made full length and curved, replacing the old separate sheets of plate glass and the center windshield pillar; the instrument panel, seats, and trim were brought upscale to match or beat passenger cars (some parts came from passenger cars); and the front suspension was switched to an independent design with coil springs. Power steering and brakes were available across the board, with optional air conditioners and fresh-air heater/defrosters under the hood.

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Comfort was increased, with more supportive, better-padded seats; and there was much more space, especially if the buyer skipped the 109 inch wheelbase and went for the 127 inch wheelbase (or a Maxivan, which appeared in calendar-year 1971, and had 18 inches of additional length for a total 212 inch length). Side doors were now hinged, with an integrated step, near the center of the body for better access; up to 15 passengers could fit into the lengthened Maxivan, and school-bus versions were available. The maximum gross vehicle weight was 7,700 pounds.

The B-vans, despite their much longer wheelbase, were just five inches longer than the A-vans (176 and 194 inches), and had more interior space (206-246 cubic feet). Part of the reason for this was keeping the engine inside the van, rather than under the new, short hood, which was mainly there to allow access to the front of the engine, as well as the radiator, alternator, air conditioning, etc. The engine was moved forward, but remained mostly in the passenger compartment, under a large, more purposeful plastic cover which, when removed, allowed surprisingly good access for repairs. Engines were limited to the 198 and 225 cubic inch slant sixes, and the 318 V8 in these earlier years; the B-vans would end up with 400 and 440 cubic inch V8s, albeit briefly, but the 318 would always be available.

Throughout their life, the B-vans had a body-over-frame construction, with rear leaf springs and shock absorbers and an independent coil front suspension. Steering was power recirculating ball, with a tight turning radius for most of the B-vans’ lifespan (ending with the 1998 changes).

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In 1971, the Royal Sportsman, Custom Sportsman, and Sportsman came with windows all around and with driver and front passenger's seat plus a rear bench seat as standard for 5-passenger seating. Optional seats increased the passenger capacity to 8, 12, or 15 passengers. The 8-passenger version could be on either the 109-inch or the 127-inch wheelbase; the 12-passenger was available on the 127-inch only. The 15-passenger was on the Maxiwagons only - which were 18 inches longer. If the standard van was selected, there were many window combinations available, including windows all around. A passenger's front seat was an extra-cost option. All seats were covered in vinyl. Deluxe driver and passenger bucket seats were optional at extra cost in Van models. (Read more about the 1971 squad cars including Sportsman vans.)

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The 127-inch-wheelbase Sportsman, Custom Sportsman, Royal Sportsman, or Van were suited for multiple use as personnel carrier, emergency vehicle, or cargo van. With just under 10 feet of length in the 127-inch wheelbase and with almost 11 feet in the Maxi versions from the back of the driver's seat to the inside of the rear doors, there was more than enough room for two stretchers to be placed in the back. In all Sportsman and Van models, double cargo doors were standard on the right side and rear.

1971 Sportsman Wagons 109" wb 127" wb Maxiwagon
Door opening-side door height* 47.2" 47.2" 47.2"
Door opening-side door width* 49.2" 49.2" 49.2"
Door opening-rear door height 47.2" 47.2" 47.2"
Door opening-rear door width 49.2" 49.2" 49.2"
Height-Maximum passenger area 53.9" 53.9" 53.9"
Length-rear door to seat-back 95.2" 113.2" 131.2"
Length-rear door to engine cover 117.3" 135.3" 153.3"
Overall length 176.0" 194.0" 212.0"
Overall width 79.0" 79.0" 79.0"
Width-maximum inside 69.9" 69.9" 69.9"
Overall height 80.8 " 80.8" 80.8"
Front Tread 65.18" 65.18" 65.18"
Rear Tread 65.12 65.12" 65.12"
Turning Radius: B100 36.5' 41.6' 41.6'
Turning Radius: B200 37.9' 43.3' 43.3'
Turning Radius: B300 40.7' 49.5' 49.5'

* These figures were the same as in 1992 - but other figures were all different.
Size Cyls / Carb Compression HP (Gross/Net, 1971) Torque
225 I6, 1-barrel 8.4: 1 145/110 215/185
318 V8, 2-barrel 8.6: 1 230/155 320/260

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In 1972, the 225 was made standard, with the 198 dropped; the powerful 360 V8 became an option. Engines gained electronic ignition in 1973 - standard on B100 and B200, which also got standard power brakes; and optional on B300; and a heavier 8,200 gross vehicle weight was brought out.

The popular Kary Van, which had an extended height (6 feet, 2 inches), was also added; it let people walk in the cabin, and was available in 10 and 12 foot body lengths, two body widths, and single or dual rear wheels; it was also available as a chassis for motor-home installation.

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1974 saw the first sliding door, available with the 127 inch wheelbase Maxivans; the grille was also replaced, and a new plant in Windsor, Ontario (Pillette Road, or Plant #6) was completed to help fill demand. Vacuum booster brakes were standard on B200 and B300, optional on the B100. An optional one-piece rear door was added in 1975 for better visibility and loading; a durable hard-service interior was brought out as an option; and a set of "GVW" packages were offered to make it easier to build up the van to a desired capacity.

The vans were so successful that Plymouth got a version, the Voyager (1974-1983); it was identical to the Dodge Sportsman, except that Plymouths were expected to be used for passengers rather than cargo, and the Dodge MaxiWagon was called the Extended Body Voyager. The Plymouth’s sales were never high, due primarily to building capacity; the vans were one of the few Chrysler Corporation vehicles to be constrained by production capacity, rather than customer demand.

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For 1976, there was an optional noise insulation package, and suspension tweaks improved the ride; a warning light appeared when the transmission fluid was too hot or low; and the Street Van, designed to look (and be) customized, was introduced. Two new engines were optional on B200 and B300: the new 400 and the standby 440. No B or RB engine had ever been available on the A-vans or B-vans. For better gas mileage and lower highway noise, a four-speed manual transmission was finally made available — before Chevy or Ford had four speed manuals in their vans. This was introduced late in the 1976 model year and was available for 1977 and later years as well.

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In 1977, Dodge, still the market leader, refreshed the vans with high-back swivel seats, upgraded carpet, quick-release bench seats, privacy glass, and the fuel pacer option; the Van Clan Club was created for owners, and a four-speed overdrive was optional on B100. The popular single rear door was made standard, with the dual rear door now optional. Five new metallic colors--light green, medium blue, medium green sunfire, russet sunfire, and black sunfire--and four straight shades--light tan, light blue, yellow, and harvest gold--were available in addition to continuing white, bright red, russet, silver cloud metallic, and bright tan metallic. Maxiwagon and maxivan models continued Chrysler's exclusive 15-passenger capacity for wagons and the longest interior cargo length for vans. The single piece rear door was now standard on wagon models, and dual rear doors were a no-cost option.

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Among the new convenience and comfort features available for 1977 were swivel high back bucket driver and passenger seat option in Royal Sportsman and Royal Sportsman SE, Tradesman van and Street Van; quick release mechanism for wagon bench seats which allowed for fast, easy removal of the seats, and new bench seat construction for improved ride. Dark gray privacy glass (as well as normal tinted glass) was a new option on Sportsman five and eight passenger wagons and vans; the darker glass increased interior privacy, and reduced heat for cooler interiors. Perhaps more to the point for many people, the big 400 and 440 cubic inch V8 engines were made optional; they would only be available for three scant years, 1977, 1978, and 1979, and the payback on the engineering to fit them into the engine bay must have been negligible. Still, the rationale is not hard to find: there were fewer cars sold with those engines, and management must have figured that using them in vans would at least keep the factories running.

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The refresh continued for 1978 with a rear and interior reskin. A lower beltline and moving the doors forward (on the 127 inch wheelbase vans) allowed for bigger windows; the new roof could have vents or a sunroof, and a new instrument panel with a spring-loaded swing-up glove compartment door and easier to reach fuse block were added. The optional air conditioning system now had integrated center and outboard outlets. A woodgrain appliqué was standard on high line and premium vans.

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Nicer trim and seats, including a color-keyed formed-steel seat riser, and two-tone paint added to the package. Front door vent windows got a positive detent latch and release button. On Sportsman and Tradesman vans, even the climate control panel was replaced with one taken from the car lines, on models; cars with air conditioning got four fan speeds. The new color-keyed steering column included an ignition switch and steering column lock, with new two-spoke, deep-dish steering wheels similar to those in cars, and woodgrain appliqué on higher trim levels. A 16½ inch wheel was used with manual steering, for leverage, and a 15-inch wheel was used for power steering.

Under the hood, a redesigned heater/vent system had an air-blending temperature control system, which had faster temperature response than the older system along with better air distribution.

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Thanks to the noise reduction and ride improvement of 1976 and the 1977-78 refreshes, the B-vans were now much more civilized, and quickly became the institutional van of choice, seeing duty in hotels, churches, smaller schools, and other venues.

swivel seatsBut they were also starting to be used as recreational vehicles, and Dodge helped by creating a “travel seat” option (to be resurrected for the 2008 minivans) for the Dodge Royal Sportsman. The second row seat could be faced front or rear, with an optional table between the second and third seat rows; the seats could be laid flat for sleeping, as well. Even the front seats could recline and swivel, if buyers of the Sportsman model chose to buy the Command Chairs. They included the dual armrests that would be a hallmark of Chrysler minivans, and swivelled through 360° wtih positive detents for full-forward and full-rear positions; they were upholstered in textured velour.

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Those wanting to get in on the CB craze could do it with a choice of an AM-40 channel CB transceiver, or an AM-FM stereo 40-channel CB transeiver. Both used a digital vacuum-flourexcent display and a six-bar signal strength display. Those who did not care to converse with truckers could buy a plain AM or AM/FM radio, or opt for AM/FM stereo or the AM/FM stereo with 8-track tape player.

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The Maxivan appeared, 220 inches long, with room for 15 people; and a new optional wraparound rear quarter window greatly increased rear visibility. Radio options were also expanded, and a 9,000 GVWR model was developed. The longer body allowed for respacing of the seats, and more usable space was provided for all 1978 wagons and vans by moving the passenger seat inboard by one inch; two new engine covers, each one four inches shorter, helped as well. The smaller cover (used on the slant six, 318, and 360) was also two inches narrower on the passenger side.

1979 was a difficult year for Chrysler as a whole; sales of the vans were down a whopping 48% due to gas prices, and RV sales fell off a cliff, so that Dodge was forced to shut down its industry-leading RV and camper operations. The Sportsman wagon was officially reclassified as a truck (it had been a car before) so Chrysler could meet CAFE standards; to be fair, it had always been more truck than car. Quad rectangular headlights (replacing the standard single round headlights), Tuff steering wheels, and AM/FM stereos with either 8-tracks or CB radios were added as options, but the 440 V8 engine (and its smaller and less long-lived first cousin, the 400) were both dropped with customers finding them too thirsty. A four-speed manual overdrive transmission was brought out for the B100 and B200, to increase mileage.

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In 1980, the three-speed manual transmission was finally dropped, leaving a standard four-speed manual for B100 and B200, and TorqueFlite on B300. Single large vented windows replaced dual windows on the sliding doors; a vented rear door window was optional, along with power windows and a trip computer, reading lights, halogen headlights, and a Dolby-enabled cassette stereo.

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For 1981, the names were all changed: Sportsman was replaced by Ram Wagon, model designations were upped by 50 (B150, B250, B350), and a new Mini-Ram van was added on a 109.6 inch wheelbase (with more brightwork, big chrome rearview mirrors, and a 36 gallon tank); its weight ranged from 3,274 to 3,646 pounds. The Wagon was similar to the van, but added windows, fresh air heater/defroster, ten inch inside mirror, padded sun visors, low-back bucket front seats, and a quick-release three-passenger vinyl rear bench seat (with three seat belts). The Long Range Van was added with a big gas tank. The (CB350) Kary Van was still available in 10, 12, and 15 foot lengths. The base engine across the board was the slant six, now with 95 horsepower at 3,600 rpm; the 318 had 140 horsepower at the same revs, and a 360 four-barrel was sold with 180 hp, again at 3,600 rpm. Two years later, in 1983, the 318 was dropped to 135 hp but a new four-barrel 318 was added with 160 horsepower, more than the pre-smog two-barrel 318s.

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In 1984, the Mini-Ram Van, sold for only a few years, was dropped, with the name transferred to the new minivan platform; it was powered by a 101 horsepower 2.2 liter engine. The Ram Van now had computer-selected front springs, a bigger 60 amp alternator (replacing the 48 amp model), and a Value Wagon edition with a 36 gallon fuel tank, more gauges, and more chromework.

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From 1984, as the company dove into efficient front wheel drive vehicles, the Ram was increasingly neglected despite comfortable fleet sales; it was no longer a star, with attention and retail sales focused on the minivans, and few non-institutional takers for the various vans.

For 1986, Dodge bumpers and grille were revised and restyled.

1988 brought the first major powertrain change in many years: the newly developed 3.9 liter V6, created for the Dodge Dakota mainly by taking two cylinders off the 360 V8 and adding fuel injection, replaced the venerable slant six, providing a superior 125 horsepower and 195 foot-pounds of torque (to be fair, a fuel injected slant six could probably have done as well).

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Carburetors came off the 318 at long last, nearly ten years after fuel injection first started to be used in popular cars, and, with a new roller cam, that venerable engine - rebadged 5.2 liter - produced quite a bit more power: 170 hp, 262 lb-ft of torque. A five speed manual transmission replaced the four-speed manual, but only if you got the 3.9 V6; and, mid-year, a four-speed automatic transmission was available with the 3.9 and 5.2. The 360 (now 5.9) continued with a carburetor, but only for one year: it got the fuel injector and roller cam in 1989, pushing it up to 190 hp and 292 lb-ft of torque. A single fuel injector was used, following corporate dictates that the absolute minimum cost be put into pollution control devices, though multiple point fuel injection was not uncommon elsewhere by this time.

In 1990, rear wheel antilock brakes were made optional, along with a heavy-duty four-speed automatic transmission.
1971 Van 1987-1997 Ram Van
Hinged door opening (height x width) 47.2 x 49.2 47.2 x 49.2
Sliding door opening (height x width) n/a 47.2 x 39.8
Max. interior width 72.2
Width between wheel-housings 50.0
Max inside height 53.9” 53.2


(1992 figures) Extended Caravan C/V 109.6 Van 127.6 Van Maxi Van
Length: rear door to driver's
seat back (in rearmost position) 97.1 92.9 110.9 136.9
Length: rear door to engine cover 120.1 138.1 162.1
Exterior length 192.8 180.7 198.7 224.7
Cargo volume 159.7 206.6 246.7 304.5

Things started to pick up with the “new Chrysler” in the early 1990s; just as the lists of revisions to the various cars grew by leaps and bounds, the vans were studied and improved. In 1992, Dodge finally brought the two base engines up to modern times, with sequential multiple-port fuel injection, a tuned intake manifold, and other changes; the “Magnum” engines now produced 180 hp, 225 lb-ft (V6) and 235 hp, 285 lb-ft (318 V8). Three-point seat belts were also added to outboard positions of the rear seat. At this time, a one-inch diameter front stabilizer bar was used with gas-charged shocks in front and back. Front brakes were power disc (11.75 x 1.25 except B350) and rears were power drum (11.0 x 2.5 except B350). Steel 15 x 6.5 inch wheels were used (except B350 which used 16 x 6). Optional 15 x 7 steel-spoke wheels were optional, again except B350. Front payloads ranged from 1,175 to 4,450 lb (the maximum with the school bus package). The alternator was up to 75 amps.

The compressed natural gas version of the Ram Van and Wagon appeared in 1992, for selected fleets; it would be tgenerally available starting in 1995.

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In 1993, the 360 got the same treatment for 230 hp and 325 lb-ft of torque; it also got returnless fuel injection, which was added to the other engines in 1994. Other 1994 changes included revised camshafts to broaden the torque curve of the 3.9 and increase the torque of the 5.2 (by 10 lb-ft); non-CFC refrigerant; optional four-wheel antilock brakes; front side door beams; better roof crush protection; new body panels; and standard automatic transmissions. For 1995 a driver-side airbag and knee bolster were made standard, and four-wheel antilock brakes were available on heavy-duty 3500 models up to 9,000 pounds GVWR; a CNG (natural gas) engine was available on 3500 Maxi-Van and Wagon (this would continue through 2000 at least). Then, for 1996, an electronic-control four-speed automatic was added; ventilation was improved for vehicles without air conditioning; and the base GVWR was raised to 6,010 pounds.

1994 Engine Vehicles Power (bhp) Torque
5.9 (360) Ram 1500 and 2500, Van, Wagon 230@4,000 330@3200
5.9 (360) Dodge Ram 3500 230@4,000 330@2,800
5.2 (318) Dakota, Ram Van, Ram Wagon 220@4400 295@3200
5.2 (318) Ram Pickup 220@4400 300@3200
3.9 V6 Dakota, Ram Van, Ram Wagon 175 @4800 225@3200
3.9 V6 Ram Pickup 175 @4800 230@3200

Antitheft protection was increased, the side and rear cargo doors opened wider, a power connector was added for easier van conversions, and underhood service points were marked more clearly. Cloth reclining bucket seats were available as an option; a redesigned Rear Plumbing Group with underhood quick disconnects was added; door check straps were redesigned; and a cassette stereo was made standard.

Gas mileage in 1997 ranged from 15/17 with the 3.9 to 11/14 with the 360 3500 Wagon (the 1500 or 2500 wagon were rated at 12/17 with the 360). The 318’s dizzying variety of powertrains and models varied mileage from 12/14 to 13/17. Automatic transmissions in 1997 were the 32RH and 36RH three-speed automatics and the 46RE four-speed overdrive automatic. The alternator was now 117 amps for the van and 136 amps for the wagon, and a 35 gallon tank was standard.

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1992-2000 109.6 WB 127.6 WB MaxiVan
Rear to seat back* 91.2 109.2 135.2
Rear to engine cover 119.6 137.6 163.6
Exterior length 187 205 231
Cargo volume 206.6 246.7 304.5
Ground clearance 6.8 7.2 8.4
Drag coefficient** 0.488
Frontal area** 36.27 sq ft
Turning radius** 40.5 ft 46.2 ft 52.4 ft
* (in rearmost position)
** 2000 figures; earlier not available.

For 1998, numerous changes were made, resulting in higher market shares. These included a power boost for the 360 (5.9) engine to 245 horsepower and 335 lb-ft of torque; suspension refinements and larger standard tires with better brakes; a stronger, stiffer, more accurate Unibody construction; new front doors with better seals; cosmetic changes; driver and passenger airbags with lower force; a passenger airbag shutoff for cargo vans; and underfloor spare tire to increase usable cargo area; a new instrument panel with built in vents; better driver controls and audio systems; adjustable seat belt turning loops; and a “GVWR realignment.” In addition, the engine compartment was moved forward to meet safety standards and improve walk-through access (see Tannon Weber's review for more on this.)

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In 1999, the 5.9-liter Magnum V-8 engine met Low Emission Vehicle requirements in California, Massachusetts, New York and Northeast Trading Region states.

1998 dodge maxivan

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In 2000, gas mileage with the 3.7 was the same, but the 360 went up to 13/17 and the 318 was 13/19 for the van, and 12/16 for the wagon (for the 3500 model), substantial improvements. The 36RH automatic had been dropped, leaving the 32RH and 46RE. Dodge wrote:

Instead of a body-on-frame chassis design, Dodge Ram Vans and Wagons are built with Unibody construction [the 1997 press release claimed body on frame!] that allows increased payloads and cargo room on most models -- all the way up to 4245 lbs. and 299.5 cu. ft. on the 3500 Maxivan and the 15-passenger 3500 Maxiwagon -- the most available payload of any full-size van. Magnum engines deliver the power for big loads: a 175 horsepower (230 lb.-ft. of torque) 3.9-liter V-6, a 230 horsepower (300 lb.-ft.) 5.2-liter V-8 or a 245 horsepower (335 lb.-ft.) 5.9-liter V-8 that -- when properly equipped -- tows trailers weighing as much as 8600 lbs. [Equipped properly, Dodge itself listed the maximum trailer weight as 13,500 pounds!]

Double-sealed front doors have a new laser-welded inner panel, as well as side-guard door beams for side impact protection. Improved sealing shuts out weather and noise. More room was created by moving the engine forward and mounting the spare tire under the floor. Heavy-duty gas-charged shock absorbers and a wishbone-type independent front suspension with a stabilizer bar are computer matched to the Ram Conversion Van's independent front suspension, delivering a smooth, yet controlled ride.

For advanced safety, Ram Van and Wagon come with next-generation driver and front passenger air bags, improved standard rear-wheel and available four-wheel anti-lock brakes.

For 2000, Ram Vans and Wagons get new hood-mounted windshield washer spray nozzles and chrome-clad wheels. Ram Vans get a six-speaker audio system as standard equipment.

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Many Rams were used for wheelchair-dependent people, given the ease of adding a wheelchair lift (minivans were also used for this); the roof could be raised and a wheelchair lift added, with custom seating and provisions for medical equipment. The Automobility program allowed for cash rebates for certain “adataptive driving devices” on conversion vans. The old idea of different interior packages for people in different trades was also present in 2000, now named Tradesman Groups; they could include Crown Slide-Down™ ladder racks, shelving units, and a full-width metal partition behind the seats and rubber floor mat.

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The B-vans, put into production in 1970, were mainly neglected from 1979 until the company recovered its spirit, fleetingly, in the mid-1990s; but by 1999, the money was gone, and the writing was on the wall. Cosmetic changes were made, features were added, and engines and transmissions came and went (except the 318 and 360, which were constant from 1972), but after 1976 the core architecture remained pretty much as it always had been. By the end, with ever-slower sales, the old lines and tooling may have hurt the vans’ once-leading quality, much as the final Diplomats were said to be less than their predecessors. Perhaps their end was inevitable, in a world with far fewer van sales and “good enough” vehicles from GM and Ford. It seems odd that the new Ram trucks never spawned new vans (as the A100 was a van, pickup, and medium-duty truck), or that the Durango was never taken that one step further. But Robert Eaton was too scared to invest much in new product; after Iaccoca left, plans from new subcompacts to supercharged Neons to revitalizing full-sized vans all fell apart, in favor of stacking up emergency cash, which disappeared not long after the company sold itself. In 2003, the B-vans finally ceased production, and were replaced by the “Dodge” Sprinter, a Mercedes van built in Germany and assembled from knock-down kits in a Southern Freightliner facility.
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